Main outcomes and measures
Estimating the impact of NFL and NCAA games with in-person attendance on new, reported COVID-19 cases per 100,000 residents at the county-level up to 14 days post-game.
Did NFL and NCAA football games with limited in-person attendance cause a substantia increase in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the U.S. counties where the games were held?
This time-series, cross-sectional study of U.S. counties with NFL and NCAA football games used matching and difference-in-differences design to estimate the effect of games with limited in-person attendance on county-level COVID-19 spread. Our study does not find an increase in county-level COVID-19 cases per 100,000 residents due to NFL and NCAA football games held with limited in-person attendance.